Introduction

Gujarati (Gujarātī) is an Indo-Aryan language descended from Sanskrit. Gujarati is the native language of the Indian state of Gujarat and its adjoining union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Gujarati is one of the 22 official languages and 14 regional languages of India. It is officially recognized in the state of Gujarat, India.

There are over 50 million speakers of Gujarati worldwide. In India, the Gujarati language is spoken the areas of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra states adjoining Gujarat. A large portion of population of the Mumbai, city speaks Gujarati.

Out of India, Gujarati is spoken in many parts of South Africa, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Pakistan, Usa, UK, Astralia, New Zealand, Fiji and Canada.

The script used for writing Gujarati has descended from the Brahmi and is a member of Brahmic family. The Gujarātī script was adapted from the Devanāgarī script to write the Gujarātī language. The earliest known document in Gujarati script is a manuscript dating from 1592. First printed Gujarati script appeared in 1797 advertisement. The Gujarati script was used mainly for writing letters and keeping accounts until the 19th century, whereas the devnagari script was used for literature and academic writings. It is also known as the śarāphī (banker’s), vāṇiāśāī (merchant’s) or mahājanī (trader’s) script.

Gujarati is the 26th most spoken native language in the world. Gujarati was the first language of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the “father of India”, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the “father of Pakistan” and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the “iron man of India”.

As with most languages, Gujarati comes in numerous regional dialects that differ in pronunciation, vocabulary, and/or grammar. Some dialects have many Arabic and Persian borrowings, while others, such as the southern dialects, take more from Portuguese and English, while others take more from Hindi.

Selected dialects of Gujarati are listed below along with subdivisions.

  1. Standard Gujarati
    • Saurashtra Standard
    • Nagari
    • Bombay Gujarati
    • Patnuli
    • Ahmedabad city
  2. Gamadia
    • o Gramya
    • Surati
    • Anawla
    • Brathela
    • Eastern Broach Gujarati
    • Charotari
    • Patidari
    • Vadodari
    • Patani
  3. Parsi
  4. Kathiyawadi
    • Jhalawadi
    • Sorathi
    • Holadi
    • Gohilwadi
    • Bhavnagari
    • Mer
  5. Kharwa
  6. Khakari
  7. Tarimukhi
    • Ghisadi
  8. East African Gujarati

Kutchi, also known as Khojki, is often referred to as a dialect of Gujarati, but most linguists consider it closer to Sindhi.


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